Diabetes is a serious illness that is measured in terms of blood sugar. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are both conditions of diabetes that can be monitored and regulated with proper exercise, dieting, and medication. Diabetes typically involves insulin resistance, lack of insulin production, and/or overproduction that results in low or high blood sugar levels. There is, as of yet, no direct cure for Diabetes, but there is a plethora of diabetes research going into the common disease. In the mean time, there are several medications that can help to regulate blood sugar levels into the ideal range.
Type two diabetes has several risk indicators, the most prevalent of which is obesity. Some patients, by the nature of losing weight and managing their diet, have been able to get control of their diabetes quickly and without the need of prescription medications. Conversely, some patients have found diet and exercise to not be enough and require medications to alter their blood sugar levels, with difficult cases requires insulin injections. Due to the nature of the illness, diabetes research follows two main research branches, absorption and production. The medications that exist can be categorized in this way because of the properties of Diabetes. Since diabetes is a illness pertaining to blood sugar levels that are above or below ideal numbers, most of the medications work to manipulate this level. Drugs like Biguanides help by telling the liver to make less glucose and increases the potential for other cells to absorb it. More simply, drugs like thiazolidinediones will cause muscle, fat, and liver cells to absorb more sugar when insulin is present which reduces your overall insulin resistance. The drawback to these drugs is that they increase your risk for heart problems.
On the other end, sulfonylureas work to make the pancreas produce more insulin. If you need quick care, there are injectible medications such as exenatide and pramlintide which work to lower your blood sugar. Meglitinides trigger the pancreas to release more insulin with corresponding levels of blood sugar. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors decrease the digestive tract’s absorption of carbohydrates to a more normal after meal level. There are some semi-permanent insulin pumps that will monitor your blood sugar levels and pump the proper level of insulin to achieve a normal blood sugar level to prevent spikes and troughs. Diabetes research is looking into the chemical and biological relationship between cells, glucose, and insulin. The release of insulin is a hormonal trigger to the pancreas. Since the relationship exists there, drugs are used to trigger normal insulin production if the body is not noticing on its own, however, this is only feasible for hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, requires more insulin due to the insulin resistance that is found in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia is best treated with a diabetes meal kit or a small snack. The kits provide quickly digestible sugary juice or soda or perhaps a simple carbohydrate food. The body will digest the material quickly and the increase of glucose will regulate the blood sugar levels to normal areas.
Diabetes research is an ongoing effort and multiple groups fundraise for researchers. Organizations such as the American Diabetes Association use private donations to fund millions of dollars worth of research into new investigators and new ideas. The spectrum of research that the ADA give funds to is meant to accompany the National Institutes of Health and other governmental research grants. Many research schools also pour money into discovering and innovating a better understanding of the disease in the hope of producing a more effective drug for blood sugar regulation or simply breaking through the disease with a cure.